turkishenglish.com - Comparison of relative clauses in ESL students







                                    Grammar/Writing                 Reading                    Oral Skills



Program Skills              Meets 10 hrs./week            Meets 5 hrs./wk        Meets 5 hrs./wk       

                                    Focus shifts from                Focus is on                Focus is on

                                    grammar in lower                improving read-         improving pro-

                                    levels to writing in               ing skills such             nunciation, flu-

                                    the higher levels.                 increasing                  ency, oral gram-

                                                                              speed, learning           mar, and listen-

                                                                              vocabulary in             ing comprehen-

                                                                              context, finding          sion.  At increas-

                                                                              main ideas, mak         ingly higher lev-

                                                                              ing inferences,            els there is a

                                                                              skimming and             greater emphasis

                                                                              scanning, sur-            on formal oral

                                                                              veying, and                presentations

                                                                              improving gen-           plus listening to

                                                                              eral compre-              and taking notes

                                                                              hension.                     on academic



Level 1/2                      Content of com-                 Has little abil-            Has little control

Beginner/                      position has little                 ity to predict              over lexical items

False Beginner              support.  Organiza-             reading con-              or sentence-level

                                    tion is sentence.                  tent.  Reads texts       utterances. 

                                    level or lower.                     with simple lex-          Speech is slow

                                    Has little control                  ical items and             and contains

                                    over lexical items                syntactic struc-          many errors in

                                    needed for expres-             tures.  Has dif-           pronunciation.  Is

                                    sion.  Has many sen-           ficulty finding              able to compre-

                                    tence-level gram-                main ideas.                hend only slow

                                    mar and syntax                   Reads at a rate          speech on simple

                                    errors.  Experiences            slower than                topics.  Requires

                                    difficulty knowing                100 words per           numerous repiti-

                                    where a sentence                minute.                      tions to facilitae

                                    ends.                                                                   understanding.





                                    Grammar/Writing                     Reading                Oral Skills



Level 3                         Content support is              Reads a some-          Has lexical con-

Low                             minimal.  Organiza-             what larger                trol over only

Intermediate                 tion is no higher                   variety of texts           simple items. 

                                    than sentence level.             than Level 1               Produces utter-

                                    Exhibits some lexical           students.  Has            ances containing

                                    control over familiar            some ability to           many errors in

                                    items.  Has many sen-         understand more        grammar, pro-

                                    tence-level errors in            difficult lexical            nunciation and

                                    grammar and syntax.           items.  Reads             syntax; however,

                                    Displays some prob-           some sentences          sentence length

                                    lems in use of end               containing                  and speed are

                                    punctuation.  Has                clasue struc-              much greater

                                    frequent spelling                  tures.  Has                 than those of

                                    errors.                                improved abil-           Level 1 students. 

                                                                              ilty to find main          Has an under-

                                                                              ideas.  Has begun      standing of a

                                                                              to practice skim-        wider range of

                                                                              ming and scan-          topics spoken at

                                                                              ning.  Reads               greater speeds

                                                                              100 to 200 words      than Level 1

                                                                              per minute.                students.



Level 4                         Is able to give                     Is able to read a         Has lexical con-

Intermediate                 increased support               variety of text             trol over a wide

                                    to ideas.  Has con-             types from                 range of topics.

                                    trol of rhetorical                  charts, graphs,           Makes some

                                    form at paragraph               and catalogs to          errors in pro-

                                    level.  Sentences are           elementary aca-         nunciation,

                                    simple, compound,              demic topics.             grammar, and

                                    and complex.  Has              Has good ability         syntax that

                                    good control over               to understand             occasionally

                                    familiar items and                main ideas and           obscure mean-

                                    some academic topics.        vocabulary in             ing.  Is able to

                                    Exhibits sentence-               context.  Pre-            give short, formal

                                    level grammar                     dicts content              reports on a vari-

                                    errors that do not                easily.  Has                ety of topics.

                                    usually obscure                   added surveying         Exhibits compre-

                                    meaning.  Has a few            to reading skills.         hension of simple

                                    punctuation and                  Speed has                 academic lectures

                                    spelling errors.                    increased to               spoken at a nor-

                                                                              beyond 200               mal speed.






                                    Grammar/Writing                     Reading                Oral Skills



Level 5                         Has good support for          Has advanced to        Has the ability to

Low                             ideas.  Understands            reading more             speak on simple

Advanced                     organization beyond            academic text            academic topics.

                                    paragraph level and             types.  Has good       Seldom produces

                                    in a number of rhe-             control of most          errors in speech

                                    torical modes.  Has             lexical items and         that obscure

                                    lexical control over              has the added            meaning.  Is

                                    many academic                   ability to recog-         gaining control

                                    topics.  Exhibits only           nize fact, infer-           over idiomatic

                                    occasional errors in             ence, and value          language.  Rate of

                                    grammar and                      judgement.                 speech and sen-

                                    mechanics.                          Reading speed is        tence length are

                                                                              more like that of         approaching

                                                                              a slower first-            native fluency. 

                                                                              language reader.        Is able to listen to

                                                                                                               and take notes on

                                                                                                               most academic




                                    Grammar/Writing                     Reading                         Oral Skills


Level 6                         Demonstrates excel-           Has the ability            Has the ability to

Advanced                     lent support of                    to read and com-       address academic

                                    ideas.  Is able to                 prehend diffi-             topics with oral

                                    write at essay level              cult academic             fluency

                                    easily with good lex-           texts containing          approaching that

                                    ical control of most             demanding                 of a native

                                    topics.  Has only                 structure and              speaker.  Accent

                                    infrequent errors                 and vocabulary.         is only slightly

                                    in grammar and                   Level of reading         discernable.  Is in

                                    mechanics.  Control            is approaching           good control of

                                    of rhetorical modes             that of first-                idiomatic lan-

                                    is significantly bet-               language uni-             gauge.  Listens to

                                    ter than that of                    versity students.         and takes notes

                                    a Level 4 students.              Reading speed           on difficult aca-

                                                                              is equal to that           demic lectures.

                                                                              of a first-lan-              Comprehension

                                                                              guage reader.             approaches that

                                                                                                               of a native


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